Of Knights and Knaves
The technology of Westeros appears to have been relatively static for the last several hundred years. Clearly, magic existed in an early era and was a powerful force—it shaped the Freehold of Valyria and was presumably instrumental in the creation of some of the greatest structures and architectural landmarks, which have withstood for thousands of years.
In general, Westeros can be seen as a medieval world, somewhat similar to medieval Europe of the 13th through 15th centuries, though without any evidence of gunpowder.
- Glass of varying qualities, from leaded glass, to colored glass, to crafted lenses fashioned into telescopes (or “far-eyes”).
- Mirrors crafted from beaten silver.
- Maps of the stars and planets.
- Clothing is made of fabrics such as cotton, linen, wool, and silk; elaborate dresses with lace and fine gemstone ornaments are common for noble ladies.
- Dyes of many colors; metal can even be colored.
- Two-masted galleys, equipped with up to 60 oars, and four-decked warships of 400 oars.
- Iron braziers to burn coal.
- Oil lanterns exist and are used frequently.
- Chains forged from bronze, copper, lead, iron, steel, tin, brass, platinum, and gold.
- Siege weapons, including catapults, trebuchets, mangonels, spitfires, and scorpions. Some are mounted on warships, and some are too massive to ever move.
- Fine plate armor, which is often crafted into fantastic helms and heraldic devices.
- Longbows and heavy crossbows are both common.
- Riders may use spurs and stirrups for their mounts, both of which are crucial for knights. Similarly, it is assumed knights use arched saddles, allowing them to wield lances underarm and charge at full gallop.
- The wildlings of the North and the clansmen of the Mountains of the Moon have little technology; most of their tools are scavenged or crudely built.
- The realms to the east may have wondrous devices and strange advances, though barbaric tribes like the Dothraki have little use for scholarly pursuits.
- Ravens are trained to carry messages and are used to communicate across the breadth of Westeros.